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【阅读理解】  

2011-12-16 09:24:59|  分类: 阅读理解 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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【阅读理解】 - 佳中 - 佳中Blog
 
  【阅读理解                                  Dictionary

                                                                                                                                 佳中  命题

                                                                          

         No reference book, perhaps no book of any kind except the Bible, is so widely used as the

dictionary. Even houses that have few books or none at all possess at least one dictionary; most

business offices have dictionaries and most typists always keep a copy on their desks; most girls

and boys are required by their teachers to obtain and use a dictionary. Admittedly, the dictionary 

is often used merely to determine the correct spelling of words, or to find out the accepted

pronunciation, and such a use is perhaps not the most important form an intellectual point of view.

Dictionaries may, however, have social importance, for it is often a matter of some concern to the

person using the dictionary for such purposes that he should not suggest to others, by mis-spelling

a word in a letter, or mispronouncing it in conversation, that he is not “well-bred”, and has not been

 well educated.

       Yet, despite this familiarity with the dictionary, the average person is likely to have many wrong

ideas about it, and little idea of how to use it profitably, or interpret it rightly. For example, it is often

believed that the mere presence of a word in a dictionary is evidence that it is acceptable in good

writing. Many people, when their use of a particular word has been challenged, are likely to 

conclude that it is accepted as being used by writers of established reputation if they find it in a 

dictionary. This would certainly have been true of dictionaries a hundred years ago. For a long time 

after they were first firmly established is the eighteenth century, their aim was to include only what 

was used by the best writers, and all else was suppressed, and the compiler frequently claimed 

that his dictionary contained no “low” words. Apparently this aspect of the dictionary achieved such 

importance in the mind of the average person that most people today are unaware of the great 

change which has taken place in the compilation of present-day dictionaries.

      Similarly, the ordinary man invariably supposes that one dictionary is as good and authoritative 

as another, and moreover, believes that “the dictionary has absolute authority, and quotes it to 

clinch argument.” Although this is an advantage, in that the dictionary presents a definition the 

basic meaning of which cannot be altered by the speaker, yet it could be accepted only if all 

dictionaries agreed on the particular point in question. But ultimately the authority of the dictionary 

rests only on the authority of the man who compiles it, and however careful he may be, a 

dictionary-maker is fallible, reputable dictionaries may disagree in their judgments, and indeed 

different sections of the same dictionary may differ.              

                                                                                                                                 (454 words)

 

01. Dictionaries may have social importance in that

      [A] they are widely used to determine correct usage and pronunciation.

      [B] dictionaries enjoy as great a reputation as the Bible.

      [C] the use of a dictionary is of great concern to most people.

      [D] mis-spellings and mispronunciation would mean that one is not “well-bred”.

02. We can infer from this passage that the present-day dictionaries

      [A] are less authoritative.

      [B] have less favoritism.

      [C] contain “low” words.

      [D] are less challenged.

03. From the last paragraph we learn that

      [A] no dictionary has absolute authority since dictionary makers are fallible.

      [B] the authority of a dictionary is determined by that of its compiler.

      [C] reputable dictionary makers never differ in their judgments on the definition of words.

      [D] ordinary people like to use good dictionaries of absolute authority.

04. The word “clinch” in the first sentence in the last paragraph most probably means

      [A] explain.

      [B] determine.

      [C] verify.

      [D] challenge.

05. The main purpose of the author in writing this passage is

      [A] to emphasize the social importance of dictionaries.

      [B] to clarify the wrong ideas about dictionaries.

      [C] to interpret how to use dictionaries profitably.

      [D] to compare the present-day dictionaries with those of a hundred years ago.

 

 

答案解析

 

01.   【答案】 D

        【考点】 因果原委。      针对第一段命题。

        【解析】   作者在第一段中说:一般人认为词典的用途是查单词的正确拼写或发音,但词

         典还具有social importance,因为用词典的人实际上关心的是,如果在信中出现拼写错误

         或者在交谈中有发音错误,会被人认为是没有受过良好的教育(not well educated),即

         没有良好的教养 (not well bred), 因此D项是本题的正确答案。

                本题易错选B项和C项。文中所述的social importance并非是强调词典象圣经一样在社

         会上享有很大的声誉,也不是指使用词典是大多数人所关心的事。

 

02.   【答案】 D

        【考点】 本题测应用推理和引申的能力。     针对第二段命题。

       【解析】   许多人在用词遇到问题时总是喜欢查词典,认为凡词典中能查到的词皆取于名作

         家的作品,都是正确的。作者在第二段中指出,十八世纪编写的词典确是如此,那时候的

         词典编者吹嘘他们编写的词典中没有low words, 但现在编写词典的方法已有了很大的改变

       (the great change which has taken place in the compilation of present-day dictionaries),

         暗示现在词典收用的词并不一定都是名作家所用过的词,因此可以推断现在的词典中有low 

         words,D项是本题的正确答案。从文中无法推断现在的词典的权威性较差或受人们喜爱程

         度低, 因此A项和B项都为干扰项。

 

03.   【答案】 B

        【考点】 本题测理解文中具体信息的能力。     针对第三段命题。

        【解析】   第三段论述词典的权威性。一般人认为词典具有绝对的权威性,而且每种词典的

          权威性都是一样的。作者认为词典的权威性决定于编者的权威性(but ultimately the 

          authority of the dictionary rests only on the  authority of the man who compiles it),由此判断

          B项是本题的正确答案。

                本题易错选A项。A项的意思是由于词典编者往往出错,没有一本词典有绝对的权威性,

          从文章信息无法得出这一推断。

 

04. 【答案】 C

      【考点】 本题测根据上下文推测生词词义的能力。     针对第三段第2句命题。

      【解析】   四个选项的意思分别为:explain“解释”;determine“确定”; verify“证明”;challenge“

        责疑”。clinch 的原意是“钳住”、“钉牢”。据最后一段第一句可知,一般人认为词典具有绝对

        的权威性,因此他们常用词典权威性来证明自己用词的正确性。由此可推断clinch在文中引

        申出  “证实”的意思,可见C项是本题的正确答案。

 

05.  【答案】 B

       【考点】 本题测理解作者写作意图的能力。     针对全文命题。

       【解析】   纵观全文,作者主要论述一般人在使用词典上存在的错误想法。在第一段作者谈

         了一般人认为词典只是用来查单词的正确发音和拼写;在第二段谈了一般人认为凡是词典

         收用的词皆取于名作家用过的词;在第三段谈了一般人认为词典都具有同样的权威性,因

         此断定作者写此文的目的是为了澄清一些有关词典和使用词典问题上的错误想法,B项是本

         题的正确答案。

                   D项的意思是比较现在的词典与一百年前的词典,这仅是文章涉及到的内容之一,不

         是作者写本文的主要目的。 


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