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阅读理解 A(028)成功的失败  

2011-08-10 12:08:25|  分类: 阅读理解 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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阅读理解 A(028)                        成功的失败

                                                                                                                                  佳中          

 

                                            阅读理解 A(028)成功的失败 - 佳中 - 嘉华相恋 

                                                                        美国硅谷

  

                                                                           Text 4

   The dot-com collapse may have been a disaster for Wall Street, but here in Silicon Valley, it was a blessing. It was the welcome end to an abnormal condition that very nearly destroyed the area in an overabundance of success. You see, the secret to the Valley’s astounding multiple-decade boom is failure. Failure is what fuels and renews this place. Failure is the foundation for innovation.

   The valley’s business ecology depends on failure the same way the tree-covered hills depend on fire — it wipes out the old growth and creates space for new life. The valley has always been in danger of drowning in the unwelcome waste products of success — too many people, too expensive houses, too much traffic, too little office space and too much money chasing too few startups. Failure is the safety valve, the destructive renewing force that frees up people, ideas and capital and recombines them, creating new revolutions.

   Consider how the Internet revolution came to be. After half a decade of start-up struggles, for example, hundreds of millions of dollars were going up in smoke. It all seemed like a terrible waste, but no one noticed that the collapse left one very important byproduct, a community of laid-off dot-com programmers who now expert in multimedia design, and out on the street looking for the next big thing.

   These media geeks were the pioneer of the dot-com revolution. They were the Web’s business pioneers, applying their newfound media sensibilities to create one little company after another. Most of these start-ups failed, but even in failure they advanced the new medium of cyberspace. A few geeks, like Silicon Graphics founder Jim Clark, succeeded and utterly changed our lives. In 1994 Clark failed in founding a company with his interactive-TV idea. Doggedly trying to develop a new interactive-TV concept, he approached Marc Andreessen, the co-developer of Mosaic, the first widely used Internet browser, in hope of persuading Andreessen to help him design his new system. Instead, Andreessen opened Clark’s eyes to the Web’s potential. Clark promptly tossed his TV plans in the trash, and the two co-founded Netscape, the cornerstone of the consumer-Web revolution.

   Like the interactive-TV refugees and generations of innovators before them, the dot-comers are already hatching new companies. Many are revisiting good ideas executed badly in the 1990s, while others are striking out into entirely new spaces. This happy chaos is certain to mature into a new order likely to upset an establishment, as it delivers life-changing wonders to the rest of us. But this is just the start, for revolutions give birth to revolutions. So let’s hope for more of Silicon Valley’s successful failures.                                     

                                                                                                                                      (440 words)

 

36. We learn from the first paragraph that Silicon Valley

      [A] welcomes the dot-com collapse from the market.

      [B] is adversely affected by the disaster from Wall Street.

      [C] could not afford to suffer failures in its innovation.

      [D] seeks to maintain an overabundance of success.

37. What Silicon Valley urgently needs is

      [A] changes in ecological environment.

      [B] reduction in unwelcome wastes.

     [C] new space for development.

      [D] more new ideas and capital.

38. What is said about start-ups in the text?

      [A] They failed due to lack of media sensibilities.

      [B] They contributed much to Internet revolution.

      [C] They collapsed with complete failures.

      [D] They did brilliantly to change our lives.

39. The author writes of the experience of Lim Clark to show 

      [A] the hardships a web pioneer has to go through.

      [B] the plight in which Clark was caught.

      [C] the positive role failure plays in revolution.

      [D] the necessity of cooperation among dot-comers.

40. What the author tries to suggest in the test can be best interpreted as

      [A] “Success can make up for previous failures”.

      [B] “No one can succeed without failures”.

      [C] “Success goes hand-to-hand with failure”.

      [D] “Successful failures is the best medicine”.

 

 

篇章分析

 

   第1段:        提出主题:Failure is the foundation for innovation.

                       理解要点:The dot-com collapse may have a disaster for Wall Street, but here in Silicon

                                         Valley was a blessing.

   第2段:        举例说明主题:

                        理解要点: create space for new life

                                            the destructive renewing force that frees up pleople, ideas and capital and

                                            recombines them, creating new revolutions.

   第3~4段: 用英特网的发展阐明主题:

                          1)start-ups

                           2)Linn Clark

                       理解要点:  这两个例子说明什么?

   第5段:       对新一代网络专家(media geeks)的评论。

                       理解要点: successful failures

 

答案解析

 

36.【答案】  A

       【考点】  这是一道推理题,针对第1段命题。

       【解析】  文章开头用了一句含特殊意义的句子。The dot-com collapse may have been a disaster for

                      Wall Street, but here in Silicon Valley, it was a blessing. (网络的崩毁对华尔街也许是灾难,可

                      对硅谷则是福音。) 这句话的真正含义是什么?下文自见分晓。(市场上)网络技术的崩毁之所

                     以备受欢迎,因为它结束了硅谷的反常情况,即(技术)成功过于饱满(overabundance)。

                    硅谷几十年来令人称奇的繁荣,其秘密就在于失败。是失败(指技术产品在市场上的失败)赋予

                    硅谷更新的动力,失败是创新的基础。可见硅谷对网络技术产品在市场上的失败抱欢迎态度。

                   A项是本题的正确答案,其他三项的意思都是错的。

    

37.【答案】  C

       【考点】  这是一道细节题,针对第2段命题。

       【解析】  硅谷运行生态系取决于失败,好比一座长满树木的山需要大火烧掉老树。为新的生命创造空间

                     (create space for new life)。这个比喻说明硅谷像长满树木的山一样,需要有新的发展空间,

                      C项是本题的正确答案。

 

38.【答案】  B

        【考点】  这是一道细节题,针对第3、4段命题。

        【解析】  让我们来看一看网络创新的过程。创业者经过5年的奋斗,花掉了大量钱财而告失败,这看上起

                       似乎是很糟的浪费。但没有人注意到他们的失败却带来一个很重要的副产品 ―― 这批离开的网

                       络程序设计员,现在都成为了多媒体设计专家,都在寻求新的更大的创新。这些媒体专家是网络

                      创新的先驱者,他们凭借他们的创新的敏感性创建了一个又一个公司,虽然多数都失败了,但即

                       使是失败,他们推动了网络空间媒体发展。显而易见,作者肯定这些为网络创新奋斗的

                       start-sups 们为internet revolution作出贡献,可以判断B项是本题的正确答案。

39.【答案】  B

       【考点】  这是一道例证题,针对第4段命题。

       【解析】  作者在第4段举了硅谷网络制图创建者Jim Chark的例子。从Chark的经历,我们可以看出Chark是

                       从失败 -→ 找新观念 -→ 创建netscape。联系前面讲到的许多开始失败的start-ups,后来都

                      成为网络创新的先驱者,可以断定作者写第4段的目的是想强调在网络创新的过程中。许多人都是

                      从失败走向成功的。换言之,失败在创新中起到积极的作用,这也符合全文的主题。

 

40.【答案】  D

       【考点】  这是一道主旨题,针对第全文命题。

       【解析】  本题要求用一句谚语或名言概括全文的主题。(考研真题已多次采用这种命题方式。)四个选项的

                      意思是:A项的意思是:“成功能弥补过去的失败”; B项的意思是:没有人不经历失败而成功;

                      C项的意思是:成功与失败并存; D项的意思是:成功的失败是最佳疗药。从前面四题的分析,可以

                      断定D项是本题的正确答案。文章的结尾,作者不是说“让我们期望更多硅谷式的成功的失败”吗!”

 

 

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