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阅读理解 A(030)理查德·埃文斯走私了吗?  

2011-08-17 08:48:45|  分类: 阅读理解 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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阅读理解 A(030)               理查德·埃文斯走私了吗?

 

                                                                                                                                           命题:佳中

 

                                                                               Test 2

   Richard Evans, a retired lorry driver, and his family where traveling in Spain last summer when their camper van broke down. They left it to be brought back by the AA. But customs officers at Dover claimed it was being used for smuggling. They seized the vehicle and all its contents, including 9,000 cigarettes and 20 bottles of spirits. The van, worth ?20,000, is still impounded.

   Under European Union regulations, people may import an unlimited quantity of alcohol and tobacco, so long as it is for their own personal use. Had Mr. Evans been driving his van himself, he would probably have had no trouble. Cases like this are putting Customs and Excise’s considerable powers under scrutiny. A recent stinging High Court judgment about another vehicle seizure said, “the mindset of those determining these policies has not embraced the world of an internal market where excise goods can move freely across internal frontiers.” And, on September 18th, the EU announced that it was giving Britain two months to prove that customs officers not breaching consumers’ rights to shop freely in Europe.

   However, Customs officers have an impossible job. Excise duty and VAT on a pack of premium brand cigarettes account for 79% of the recommended retail selling price of ?4.51. An identical pack costs ?1.97 in Belgium. One in every five cigarettes smoked in Britain — some 17 billion altogether — has been smuggled.

   The main weapon Customs and Excise has is tackling abuse is to seize cars in which it suspects goods are being smuggled. Guidelines suggest “personal use” can mean only up to 800 cigarettes, for example. Anyone bringing in more can be asked to explain. In the past three years, customs officers have impounded more than 22,000 vehicles. Tellingly, only a fifth of seizures are contested, and less than 1% of appeals are successful. Officials say the value of cross-channel smuggling has fallen sharply in the past year, from ?1.6 billion to ?400 million.

   Some customs officers, though, have clearly been over-zealous. And the recent High Court case ruled that the legislation under which Customs and Excise operates wrongly reverses the burden of proof. The defendant must prove that he is not bringing in tobacco and so forth for a commercial purpose. It also said that customs officers must have “reasonable grounds” for searches: suspicion and intuition are not enough.

The minister in charge of Customs and Excise, John Healey, accepts that there is an urgent need to respond to question about the “legitimacy” of the customs regime. But he says the charge that Customs are abusing their posers in wrong: “Customs”, he says, “never stop at random. They never do blanket searches. They always have some ground for stopping people.” Tell that to Mr. Evans.                                                      

 

26. The story of Richard Evans is cited in the test as

      [A] an example of tax evasion in the European Union.

      [B] an indication of the power abuse of Customs officers.

      [C] a proof of the prevalence of smuggling in Britain.

      [D] a typical case of smuggling in Customs practice.

27. The European Union’s attitude towards the behavior of the Customs and Excise can be described as one of

      [A] condemnation.

      [B] indifference.

      [C] apprehension.

      [D] dissatisfaction.

28. It is implied in the text the smuggling of alcohol and tobacco in the EU

      [A] is not easy to be checked.

      [B] is getting more serious.

      [C] causes frequent controversy.

      [D] will decrease with more legislation.

29. It can be inferred from the text that Customs officers

      [A] rely much on their suspicion and intuition.

      [B] seize suspected vehicles wrongly in most cases.

      [C] sometimes carry out searches with no reasonable grounds.

       [D] over-zealously respond to the smuggling of alcohol and tobacco.

30. By “Tell that to Mr. Evans” (Last line, Last Paragraph), the author means that

      [A] what John Healey has said is unconvincing.

      [B] Evans should know what John Healey means.

      [C] what the Customs did to him is justified.

      [D] his case is to be resolved legitimately.

 

 

 答案解析

 

26.【答案】  B

       【考点】  这是一道态度题,针对第1段命题。

       【解析】  第1段讲述理查德·埃文斯的露营车被怀疑用于走私,被多佛港海扣押。作者举这一例子的目的何

        在?作者在第2段说,欧盟法规规定对带入境个人使用的烟酒数量没有限制,假如埃文斯自己开车的话,就

        不会有麻烦了。类似这样的案例使关税与消费局的强大权力受到关注。(Had Mr. Evens been driving his

        van himself, he would probably have had no trouble. Cases like this are putting Cujstoms and Excise’s

        considerable powers under secrutiny.)从这段话可以推断埃文斯露营车上被查出的9000支香烟和20瓶酒

        不属于走私。联系全文可以断定,作者举埃文斯的例子是要说明英国海关有滥用权力之嫌。B项是本题的正

        确答案。

 

27.【答案】  D

       【考点】  这是一道态度题,针对第2段命题。

       【解析】  英国海关的扣押有时会引起诉讼,欧盟高级法院对此的态度是:“这些政策的制定者在思想观念

         里没有接受欧盟境内市场征税物品在各成员国之间可以自由流通的规定”。欧盟给英国两个月的时间,要

        求其证明海关官员没有侵犯消费者可以在欧洲自由购物的权利。显然,欧盟对英国关税与消费局的做法是不

        满的,D项是本题的正确答案。

 

28.【答案】  A

        【考点】  这是一道推理题,针对第3、4段命题。

        【解析】  作者在第3、4段客观分析了英国海关的工作。作者认为海关官员在做一项“impossible job”。关

         键是对“imposible”的理解。第3段中举了一包名牌香烟价格差异的例子,正因为欧盟各国之间烟酒价格差

         异大,烟酒走私严重,英国每五支抽的烟中有一支是走私的。言下之意,英国海关反烟酒走私的工作是很

         困难。现在可以理解“impossible”的意思了吧。可见,本题的正确答案是A项。

 

29.【答案】  D

       【考点】  这是一道推理题,针对第5段命题。

       【解析】  作者在第3、4段肯定英国海关反烟酒走私的工作是很困难,是有成效的。接着作者在第5段指出,

         有些海关官员对反烟酒走私过分热情(over-zealous)。最近最高法庭裁定,关税与消费局颠倒了双方举证

        责任,要被告举证自己没有出于商业目的携带烟草的物品的做法是错误的,规定海关官员必须有进行搜查的

       “合 理依据”,光凭怀疑好直觉是不够的。言下之意,海关官员有在没有合理依据的情况下就进行搜查,所

         以C项是本题的正确答案。

 

30.【答案】  A

        【考点】  这是一道句意题,针对第最后一段命题。

       【解析】  最后提到关税与消费局长Healay对其部门指责的反应。他认为确实有迫切必要对海关系统的合法

        性问题作出反应,但有关海关滥用职权的指控是错误的。他说海关“从来不会随意截停,也从不进行地毯

        式搜查,他们拦住某些人都是有理由的。”对Healay的讲话作者只用一句话评论,“Tell that to Mr. Evans

        (把这句话说给埃文斯听听吧) 。从文中可以看出,埃文斯的烟酒不是走私,海关扣他的车是没有理由的,当

        然埃文斯是不可能相信Healey的话的。A项是本题的正确答案。

 

 

 

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