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阅读理解 A(027)老龄化对社会文化产生的影响  

2011-08-09 12:42:20|  分类: 阅读理解 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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阅读理解 A(027)老龄化对社会文化产生的影响 - 佳中 - 佳中Blog

  老龄化对社会文化产生的影响

  命题:佳中

        

 

 
         By the year 2030, the median age will reach at least 40 in the United States and over one-half of
all adults will be aged  50 and over, which will outnumber all younger adults and children in the United
States. What do these numbers mean for our culture? Clearly, they mean a much greater focus on the
interests and activities of the old over those of the young. For decades, the mass media in the United
States and around the world — TV, movies, popular music, and radio — have aggressively counted
the all important under 50 demographics. How will the business, as well as the substance, of popular
culture change as it becomes evident that the elderly represent the fastest growing component of the
total population and youth the fastest shrinking one?
     We should not be surprised to see pension issues on the front pages of newspapers. Yet the
numbers may have a deeper influence. Along with experience and wisdom, it has long been observed
that old age brings with it an aversion to risk and change. Cicero put it this way: “young men for action,
old men for counsel”. As people age, moreover, the formative era that shaped their education and
outlook becomes ever more remote in time — making them seem, in a changing world, increasingly
“out of date” from theperspective of youth. 
      As the entire population of the developed world grows old, the attributes of personal aging may
come to define the tone and pace of the culture at large. Part of this tone may be a general slowing
down of the pace of social life. As social scientist Andrew Hacker observes, “Have you noticed how
much longer it takes New York buses to get going, since elderly passengers take so much longer
boarding and leaving? Or the wait at your bank and post office, when the aged person at the window
doesn’t understand what he/she is being told?
      The shrinking of the average family may reinforce the aging of culture. In a world of steadily falling
fertility, a growing share of the population will consist of first born and only children. First born children,
many social scientists say, are typically more conservative in their social outlook than later-born siblings.
According to historian Fran Holloway, “First born children are less open to innovation, they tend to be
more conforming, more traditional and more closely allied with their parents.”                                                      
      Another possibility is that smaller families may make society less willing to put its young at risk in
national emergencies such as war. In past generations, families who lost a son in battle could usually
take solace in the survival of his brother, and indeed governments have sometimes exempted only
sons from war time service. In the coming decades, will developed societies be willing to place their
scare youth in harm’s way to defend national interests?   

                                                                                                                              (475 words)

 

31. According to the text, the aging population could

      [A] put greater focus on the rise in pensions.

      [B] have an adverse effect on popular music and TV.

      [C] reduce the interests and activities of the young.

      [D] modify the popular culture of the society.      

32. In the third paragraph, the author states that an aging population may 

      [A] deepen the ideological conflict between the old and the young. 

      [B] have a deeper influence on education and outlook.

      [C] retard the growth of experience and wisdom.

      [D] increase the youth’s aversion to risk and change.

33. The examples in the fourth paragraph are given to illustrate that

      [A] the pace of social life slows down.       

      [B] people will get used to slow-style life.

      [C] old people are less active than young ones.

      [D] personal aging should be redefined.

34. The last two paragraphs discuss

      [A] the shrinking of the average family.

      [B] the impact of fewer young people.

      [C] the living conditions of the first born children.

      [D] the importance of defending national interests.

35. What is said about first born children in the passage?

      [A] They tend to establish small families with steadily falling fertility.

      [B] They are unwilling to take risks in time of national emergencies.

      [C] They are less innovative than later-born siblings.       

      [D] They are unlikely to be asked to fight in future wars.

 

 

篇章分析

   第1段:    美国人口老龄化年龄的情况。

   第2段:    提出主题:老年人人数增多对社会文化意味着什么?

   第3~4段: 老年人口增长产生的影响。

                        1) 老年人与年青人观念冲突。

                        2) 减模社会生活节奏。

   第5~6段: 年轻人口减少产生的影响。

                        1) 保守,缺乏创造性。

                         2) 不愿送孩子冒风险。

 

答案解析【答案】  D

31.【考点】  这是一道细节题,针对第2段命题。

     【解析】  到2030年, 美国人口平均年龄至少将达到40岁,一半以上的成年人将超过50岁,数

       量上超过年轻人和儿童的总数。老年人数增长对我们的文化意味着什么呢?显然,这意味着

       我们对老年人的兴趣和活动的关注程度会超出对年青人的关注。几十年来,美国和世界各地

       的媒体(电视、电影、流行歌曲和广播)的关注焦点都集中于50岁以下的人口。当老年人成

       为总人口增长最快的一部分,年青人成为总人口减少最快的一部分时,我们的大众文化将如

       何运行,其内容又会有什么变化呢?作者虽然用了问句,但言下之意,老年人数增长,人数

       超出年青人人数时必将对社会文化产生深刻的影响, 因此应选D项。

 

32.【答案】  A

       【考点】  这是一道细节题,针对第3段命题。

       【解析】  老年人有经历和学识,但他们常不喜欢冒险和变化。正如西塞罗所说,“年青人

         宜于采取运动,而老年人宜于充当顾问” 。随着年龄变老,老年人早期所接受的教育和形

         成的观念都落后于时代,在这个不断变化的世界里他们越来越“落伍”于年青人的观念。

         从这句话不难推断老龄化会使老年人在观念上与年青人有更大冲突会,因此A项是本题的正

         确答案。

 

33.【答案】  A

       【考点】  这是一道例证题,针对第4段命题。

       【解析】  作者在第四段举了两个例子,讲因为有老人上下车,纽约的巴士停车时间延长。

         同样,银行和邮局窗口因有老人不明白怎么办,等候时间会延长。在段落中举例通常都是说

         明前面的观点。作者说:当发达国家人口老龄化,老年人的特征可能会逐步界定整个社会文

         化的格调,其中之一就是社会生活节奏总体减缓。这道题很简单,A项是本题的正确答案。

 

34. 【答案】  B

       【考点】  这是一道段落大意题,针对第5、6段命题。

       【解析】  第5段的大意:家庭人员缩减,一般家庭只有一个孩子。头胎生的孩子比较保守

       (comservative),缺乏创造性(less open to innovation);比较温顺、传统(traditional)、听从

        父母。第6段的大意:小型家庭使社会不愿为根据安危(如战争)让孩子去冒险(make

        socieity less willing to put its young at risk in national emergencies such as war)。归纳一下

        可知这两段的中心是谈论年青人减少对上社会产生的影响。B项是本题的正确答案。

 

35.【答案】  B

       【考点】  这是一道细节题,针对第5、6段命题。

       【解析】  这道题问文中是如何描述头胎生的孩子(first-born children)的。先看一下四选

        项的意思。A项的意思是:他们倾向于建立小型家庭;B项的意思是:他们不願在国家危急

        去冒险;C项的意思是:他们比后出生的兄弟姐妹缺乏创造性D;D项的意思是:他们不可

         能被要求在未来战争中去打扙。A项和D项很容易被排除。B项是干扰项,因为与文中所

         述有出入。文中说小型家庭使社会不愿为根据安危(如战争)让孩子 去冒险,不是说头胎

         生的孩子自己不願在国家危急时去冒险;当然只有D项是本题的正确答案,上题已分析

         到头胎生的孩子比较保守(comservative),缺乏创造性(less open to innovation)。

 

 

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