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阅读理解A (40)创意共享  

2011-10-22 09:56:17|  分类: 阅读理解 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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阅读理解A (40)创意共享 - 佳中 - 嘉华相恋

   阅读理解A (40)          

                                                  创意共享

 

 

 

 

                                                                     Text 4

      If William Shakespeare were working today on Broadway or in London’s West End, he would be

spending a lot of time with lawyers. The poet adapted Romeo and Juliet from Brooke’s peom The

Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Juiet, which Brooke, is his turn, had based on a French translation

by Pierre Boaistuau of Various Italian stories.

     The history of creative workds, whether Romeo and Juliet or the Beastie Boys “Pass the Mic,” is a

chronicle of “borrowing” from others. Intellectual-property lawyers might use a harsher word. But the

framers of the Constitution always intended to provide owners of creative works with only limited

monopolies, ensureing that the public gets the right to fashion new works from old.

      Over the years, however, Congress, sometimes at the request of media companies, has erected

immense barriers to derivative works by extending repeatedly both the length and the scope of

copyright protection. A copyright holder no longer has to register a new work. Any blog, peot’s sonnet

or even a child’s drawing now recieves copyright automatically. Permission is needed for republishing

or excepting, with limited exemptions for fair use. Coryright in its current form fails to strike a balacne

between the extreems of allowing total control over every work — “all rightws reserved”— and an

uncontrolled system in which pirates steall madly without compensation to owners. Overly strongly

property rights can threaten the Internet as a medium capable of fostering dynamic interchange of

ideas.

      In 2001 Stanford University legal scholar Lawrence Lessig set about righting this imbalance by

becoming the leading force behind Creative Commons, a nonprofit group that funishes a much

needed middle ground that lets owners give up some but not all of their rights. An author still retains

a copyright, but only some rights are reserved by choosing among the dozen or so free licenses,

denoted by the Creative Commons’s mark, that are available for downloading off the Web. One license

permits others to use a work as long as attribution is given. Another gives the right to sample as long

as the entire works is not used. The BBC plans to license archival material to the British public without

a fee as long as it is not used for mmercial purposes. Creative Commons has started a Sciencde

Commons effort that will even explore the open licensing of technology contained in some patents.

      The Internet, as a universal publisher of sorts, needs to be more than an outlet for commercial

interest. New communities of artists, scientists and nonporofits want some way to share and rework

one another’s intellectual output without the enormous legal burdens that come with increasingly harsh

rights management. The entertainment induistry has been largely silent on this issue — its idea of

innovation having been the launching of lawsuits against 10-year-olds to punish music pirating. In this

environment, the introduction of Creative Commons’s middle path of “some rights reserved” is murely

a welcome arrival.

                                                                                                           (485 words)

 

36. The author mentions William Shakespeare in the first paragrapy to show that

      [A] his works were borrowed by other poets.

      [B] he started the history of creative works.

      [C] new works are often fashioned from old ones.

      [D] the sharing of works was common at his time.

37. What does the author think of the current coryright law?

      [A] It will fail to protect artists’ rights.

      [B] It will do harm to the on-line exchange of ideas.

      [C] It needs to expand more copyright protection.

      [D] It will prevent pirates from stealing creative works.

38. Creative Commons advocates that

      [A] all reserved rights should be given up.

      [B] the donwloading on the Web is free.

      [C] on-line works cannot be used for commercial purposes.

      [D] the author owes some selective rights to be reserved.

39. Creative commons is a welcome arrival because it

      [A] creates new communities for artists and scientists

      [B] comes up with harsh rights management

      [C] protects Internet commercial interests.

      [D] boosts the sharing of creative works on-line.

40. It is evident that the author of this passage is in favor of

      [A] author's reservaion of limited rights.

      [B] harsh rights management.

      [C] the request of media companies.

      [D] Internet commercial interests.

 

 

答案解析

36.【答案】  C

       【考点】  举例目的,针对第1~2段命题。

       【解析】  作者在第一段中说莎士比亚的名作《罗密欧与朱丽叶》是根据布鲁克斯的《罗的密奥斯与

        朱丽叶的悲剧史》改编的,而布鲁克斯的《罗密奥斯与朱丽叶的悲剧史》又是根据意大利的故事的

        法译本创作的。接着作者作者在第二段指出创造性作品的历史就是“借鉴”的历史(The history of

        creative works …….. is a chronicle of “borrowing” from others.)当时宪法缔造者只给作者有限的权

        利,保证公众有权利在旧作品的基础上创作新作品(ensuring that the public get the right to fashion

        new works from old)。不难判C项是正确答案。

37.【答案】  B

       【考点】  作者观点,针对第3段命题。  

       【解析】 题干问题作者对现行版权法的看法。从第三段可知,现行版权法是“all rights reserved”。

        作者在评述时说,现行版权法没有能在“允许版权所有者对作品完全控制”与“放任盗版的无序状

        态”这两个极端之间找到平衡。解本题的关键是段落最后一句:Overly strongly property rights 

        can threaten the Internet as a medium capable of fostering dynamic interchange of ideas。作者

        认为过分强硬的版权法会威胁到因特网作为观点动态交流的能力。)也就是说对网上观点交流有害,

        B项是正确答案。

 

38.【答案】  D

       【考点】  具体细节,针对第4段命题。

       【解析】  第四段论述Lawrence Lessig 提出的创意共享(Creative Commons)的观点。  题干问创

        意共享提倡什么?实现上是问创意共享的核心内容。创意共享观点提出“让作者放弃一些但并非所

        有权利,作者仍然仍然保留版权。但需从10多条可开放授权作出选择,从而只保留某些权利(lets

        owners give up some but not all of their rights. An author still retains a copyright, but only some

        rights are reserved by choosing among the dozen or so free licenses …….)。由此可以判断D项

       是正确答案。

 

39.【答案】 D

       【考点】 具体细节,针对最后一段提问。

       【解析】 文章最后一句说:引入创意共享提出的“保留某些权利”的中间肯定会受到欢迎。题干问

        为什么会受到欢迎?作者在最后一段说:New communities of artists, scientists and nonporofits

        want some way to share and rework one another’s intellectual output without the enormous legal

        burdens that come with increasingly harsh rights management.(新形成的艺术家、科学家和非盈

        利组织社团需要有一种途径使他们能够分享彼此作品对其进行再加工,但无需承担日益严厉的版权

        管理带来的巨大责任。)可见,受欢迎的原因是因为创意共享能促进网上作品的分享,即boosts the

        sharing of creative works on-line,因此D项是正确答案。

 

40.【答案】  A

       【考点】  观点推断,针对全文命题。

       【解析】  四个选项的意思分别是:[A]保留有限权利;[B] 严厉版权管理  [C] 媒体公司的请求;[D] 因

        特网的商业利益。从全文不难看出作者是赞同创意共享的理念,也也就是说,作品的作者享有版权,

        但需要放弃一些权利以便在有条件的限制下进行网上作品利用和分享,因此A项是正确答案。

 

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