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阅读理解A(42)零度宽容  

2011-10-26 09:20:03|  分类: 阅读理解 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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阅读理解A(42)零度宽容 - 佳中 - 嘉华相恋

     阅读理解A (42)       

                                零度宽容

                                                                 命题: 佳中

 

 

 

                                                                          Text 2

        New York was once the murder capital of the world. But its urban canyons are no longer the killing

fields that earned the city its notorious title. The incidence of murder has dropped 65 percent since

1993. With the decrease in killing has come a marked reduction in enthusiasm for other crimes, such as

burglaries and robberies. The primary reason for this change has been the “zero-tolerance” policing

 introduced by Mayor Rudolph Giuliani in 1994. The new policing adopts a hard-line attitude against all

crimes, even the smallest crimes, including aggressive begging, taggers, turnstile jumpers in the subways

and all forms of anti-social behavior on the streets.

      New York policing is based on a paper called “Broken Windows”, written by James Wilson. “If a broken

window in an apartment block was not fixed, it was a sign that no one cared. Soon more windows would be

broken and a sense of law-lessness engendered, encouraging others to commit more crimes,” it said.

“Cleaning up minor crime on the streets was like fixing broken windows, and the flow-on effect would curb

more serious crimes.”

      Though the zero-tolerance policing has been popular with politicians and the public — and has been

emulated by police force from New Orleans to Caracas, Venezuela — not everybody thinks it is a good idea.

Some sociologists have been particularly agitated, for the new approach to policing runs counter to the

liberal notion that nothing can be done about crime without addressing its root causes in poverty and racism.

       Some criminologists point out that New York policing lacks tolerance for any deviation from social norms.

True, it has contributed in some way to lower crime rate in New York, but the overall result has been a

frightening increase of police surveillance, power, and abuse. Law enforcement has now extended its reach

into every corner of the city, resulting in as many as 80,000 new arrests a year. There has been a significant

increase in civilian complaints against the New York Police Department. This is visible not only in such bloody

instances of police wrongdoing as the cases of Abner Louima and Amadou Diallo, but also in the city’s

eagerness to further the “stereotyping of black criminality.”

      The problem with the zero-tolerance policing is that it extends beyond street-level considerations to the

definition of criminality. There is no reliable evidence that disorder causes crime, some criminologists argue.

Beggars and tramps, for example, used to be viewed as the society’s harmless “losers” nuisances, hardly

deserving of police attention. But now, thanks to the zero-tolerance policing, they are seen as sources of

crime and urban decay, which need to be controlled or banished.                                          

                                                                                                               (440 words)

 

26 Judging from this passage, “ zero-tolerance” policing is one which

      [A] is aimed at bringing down the crime rate to zero.

      [B] tolerates no crimes other than small offences on the streets.

      [C] adopts a harsher attitude towards crimes than before.

      [D] does not allow of any crime, even the smallest offences.

27. “Broken Windows”, on which the zero-tolerance policing is based, is mentioned in the passageto suggest that

      [A] a clamp-down on minor crimes is not necessarily the best policy for curbing serious crimes.

      [B] not clearing up minor crimes on the streets will lead to more serious crimes.

      [C] a sense of law-lessness will engender when small crimes on the streets are punished.

      [D] crimes on the streets, like broken windows in an apartment, are not easy to be fixed.

28. Some sociologists are opposed to New York policing because they believe

      [A] it is too liberal an approach to crimes.

      [B] it will agitate poverty and racism.

      [C] it can impossibly eradicate crimes

      [D] it has been emulated in other places.

29. Some critics express their worry that

      [A] the new policing will cause the increase in black criminality.

      [B] authorities will find it difficult to define criminality.

      [C] there is likely to be the abuse of police force.

      [D] many minor offenders are treated as serious criminals.

30. From the passage we learn that the problem with zero-tolerance policing is that

      [A] it is too tough on some slight deviation from social norms.

      [B] petty crimes on the street are difficult to control and banish.

      [C] no evidence is available for defining street-level disorder as crime.

      [D] beggars and tramps tend to be considered of no harm to the society.

 

答案解析

 

26. 【答案】 D     

      【考点】 概念含义。     针对第一段命题。

     【解析】    作者在第一段中说,纽约的犯罪率有大幅度的下降,这要感谢市长鲁道夫·朱利亚尼在1994年开

       始实行的“零度宽容”政策。所谓“零度宽容”指的是对一切犯罪行为,哪怕是像强行乞讨钱物、乱贴标

       签广告、乘地铁逃票和街头其它违反社会常规行为等最小的犯罪活动都采取强硬态度(which adopts a

       hard-line attitude against all crime, even the smallest crimes, including aggressive beggings, taggers,

       turnstile jumpers in the subways and all forms of anti-social behavior on the streets)。由此可以判断D项

       是本题的正确答案。

              本题易错选A项,文中的zero-tolerance policing并不是指将犯罪率降到零。B项的意思是“除了街头小

       的犯罪外不容忍任何其它犯罪”,C项的意思是“比以往对犯罪采取更强硬他的态度”,都与文中所述的意

       思不符。

 

27.   【答案】 B

        【考点】 句意理解。     针对第二段命题。

        【解析】   朱利亚尼的“零度宽容”政策是基于两位学者所著的题为“被打碎的玻璃窗”的文章。文章说

        “如果一幢居民大楼的一扇玻璃窗被打碎了却无人修理,这是一个信号,说明没有人关心,那么很快更多

          的玻璃窗会被打碎,一种无法无天的感觉就会滋生,鼓励旁人去从事更多的犯罪活动。肃清街头的轻微

          犯罪活动就如修理被打碎的玻璃窗,其传感效应会制止更加严重的犯罪”。 这段话暗示:如果不制止街

          头轻微犯罪活动会导致更多的严重犯罪,因此B项是本题的正确答案。

                 本题易错选C项与D项。C项的意思是“街头轻微犯罪如得到惩处会滋生无法无天的感觉”,这与

       “被打碎的玻璃窗”原意相反。D项的意思是“街头犯罪与居民大楼的被打碎的玻璃窗一样都是不易修补

          的”;这也不是“被打碎的玻璃窗”所指的含义。

 

28. 【答案】 C    

      【考点】 论据观点。     针对第三段命题。

      【解析】   有些社会学家对“零度宽容”政策极为恼火,认为这“违背了制止犯罪必须从解决贫穷和种族歧

       视这两个根本原因着手的观念(…… runs counter to the liberal notion that nothing can be done about

       crime without addressing its rot causes in poverty and racism)。换言之,这些社会学家认为“零度宽

        容”政策无法从根本上解决犯罪问题,因此C项是本题的正确答案。

              A项的意思是“零度宽容政策对犯罪过于文字化”; B项的意思是“零度宽容政策煽动贫穷和种族主

        义”;D项的意思是“零度宽容政策被其它地方模仿”。这些都不是社会学家反对“零度宽容”政策的主

        要理由。literal、agitate和emulate都是文中出现的词汇,有较大的干扰性。

 

29.   【答案】 C

         【考点】 论证观点。     针对第四段命题。

         【解析】   有些犯罪学学者指出,纽约的“零度宽容”政策缺乏对违背社会准则的行为的宽容。他们认为,

          虽然“零度宽容”政策在某些方面降低了犯罪率,但其总体结果却是警力的增加和警力的滥用(…… but

          the overall result has been a frightening increase of police surveillance, power and abuse)。从所举例

          子可以看出,他们对警力滥用深表忧虑,因为这不仅造成错案(police wrongdoings), 而且也引起公众抱

          怨(civilian complaints)。C项是本题的正确答案。

                本题易错选D项。D项的意思是“许多街头轻微违背社会准则的行为被视作严重犯罪”,与文中所述不

          符。 文中说将街头轻微违背社会准则的行为视作犯罪,并不是说严重犯罪。

 

30. 【答案】 A

       【考点】 推理引申。     针对最后一段命题。

       【解析】   有些犯罪学学者认为,“零度宽容”政策缺乏对违背社会准则的行为的宽容,其问题是将街头违

         背社会准则的行为视作犯罪(The problem with the zero-tolerance policing is that it extends beyond

         street-level considerations to the definition of criminality.)象乞讨钱物和乱贴标签广告等街头行为过去一

         直被看作是对社会并无伤害的违反社会常规的行为,无需动用警力,而现在却被看作是犯罪和城市腐败的根

        源。显然,这些犯罪学学者认为“零度宽容”政策的问题是“对一些轻微的违背社会准则的行为过于严厉”,

        A项是本题的正确答案。

        

 

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