注册 登录  
 加关注
   显示下一条  |  关闭
温馨提示!由于新浪微博认证机制调整,您的新浪微博帐号绑定已过期,请重新绑定!立即重新绑定新浪微博》  |  关闭

佳中Blog

英语学习园地

 
 
 

日志

 
 

【阅读理解】 一位美国研究日本问题专家眼中的日本社会  

2011-10-07 13:06:39|  分类: 阅读理解 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
阅读理解 A(038)一位美国研究日本问题专家眼中的日本社会 - 佳中 - 嘉华相恋

【阅读理解 】A

 一位美国研究日本问题专家眼中的日本社

                                            

                                                            命题:佳中

 

                                                         

      Japan is going through a complex national identity crisis. That may be no bad thing, says a new

book by an American academic Japanologist. The economy is in stagnation, but the society is in

motion. Japan is a difficult country to report on and analyze because things do not change in big,

noticeable ways. They change in an incremental process, generally of small steps but which, over

time, can add up to big movements. And just such a big movement seems to be taking place.

     Mr Nathan, a professor of Japanese cultural studies, has been observing Japan since the 1960s. 

Whereas most people look at economic data or the comings and goings of prime ministers, he is 

more interested in schools, novels, comic books, and the minds of young entrepreneurs and 

maverick local politicians. In particular, his focus is on whether Japan’s famously cohesive 

conformist society may be fracturing under the strain of economic stagnation, and on how such 

strains have been affecting the country’s sense of purpose and of national characters.

      Fractures are what he looks for and fractures are what he finds. On balance, they are neither

obviously dangerous nor obviously positive, but they are, as he says, signs of motion which could, 

in time, lead in unpredictable directions. The most worrying fractures he writes about are in the 

schools, where violence and truancy have risen remarkably. Old Japanese hands shrug wearily 

at such things, for worries about bullying have long existed but have never really seemed terribly 

serious. Now, though, Mr Nathan’s numbers do make the situation look grave.

      Since 1998, youths aged between 14 and 19 have been involved in 50% of all arrests for 

felonies, including murder. Truancy is also on the up. Mr Nathan asserts that the true number is 

350,000 children, or 5% of the student population.

     Such trends appear to be symptoms of two related phenomena: a widespread feeling of

disillusionment, alienation, uncertainty or anger, which has spread to children too; and a gradual

breakdown of old systems of discipline — part familial, part social, part legal — which appear to

prevent schools and parents from dealing effectively with errant children.

     Japan is, in short, passing through a national identity crisis. There are plenty of positive aspects

to it too, however. One is a considerable increase in the number of budding young entrepreneurs,

a trend especially visible in the willingness of high-flyers to leave good, safe jobs in order to set up

their own firms. The numbers remain modest, but are nevertheless surprisingly high given the state

of the economy in recent years. Another is a new eagerness among popular writers and maverick

politicians to try to define and encourage a new national pride.    

  (450 words)

 

26. What is said about social changes in Japan in the first paragraph?

     [A] They are often accompanied by a complex national identity crisis.

     [B] They take place on a small scale but end up with accumulative consequence.

     [C] They give an enormous impetus to social progress but not to economic progress.

     [D] They proceed without being analyzed and reported due to their complexity.

27. Nathan has observed the Japanese culture for may years to find out

     [A] what are the social problems underlying in the Japanese society.

     [B] why the Japanese society is famous for its cohesive and conformity.

     [C] how the Japanese behave under the strains of economic stagnation.

     [D] whether a stagnant economy has a negative effect on the Japanese society.

28. We learn from the passage that school violence and truancy in Japan

     [A] is more serious than it thought.

     [B] have moved in unpredictable directions.

     [C] have resulted in many serious social problems.

     [D] have made the Japanese social structure fracture.

29. In Nathan’s eye, the problem of school violence and truancy in Japan

     [A] is a reflection of the negative feelings of the Japanese about the society.

     [B] is an indication of the Japanese parents’ incapacity to deal with errant children.

     [C] is a symptom of the decline of ethic and morality in the Japanese society.

     [D] is a sign of the necessity for reforms in traditional school systems.

30. It can be concluded from that passage that the Japanese national identity crisis

     [A] is a grave problem deserving of serious social attention.

     [B] proves to be neither dangerous nor beneficial.

     [C] does more good than harm to the society.

     [D] produces both positive and negative effects.

 

 

答案解析

 26. 【答案】   B

          【考点】  具体细节,针对第一段命题。

          【解析】  文章主旨是一位美国研究日本问题专家对日本社会变化的看法。这位专家认为:

            日本经济停滞不前,但社会仍在向前发展。日本是一个很难报道和分析的国家,因为在日

            本事情不是以大规模以及人们可以注意到的方式变化的。日本是以渐进的方式变化,通常

            是小规模,但随着时间的过去,累积起来可达到大规模的变化(They change in an 

             incremental process, generally of small steps but which, over time, can add up to big 

             movements.)。

 

27. 【答案】  D

      【考点】 具体细节,针对第2段命题。

      【解析】 本题测Nather研究日本社会的目的。Nather研究日本文化多年,他对日本之所以研

        究以学校、小说、漫画以及年轻企业家和地方政客感兴趣。他凝聚力强和顺称的日本社会,

        目的是想看在经济停滞的压力下,日本社会是否会产生裂缝以及这种压力怎样影响日本的

         国家宗旨和特点(In particular, his focus is on whether Japan’s famously cohesive conformist 

         society may be fracturing under the strain of economic stagnation, and on how such strains 

         have been affecting the country’s sense of purpose and of national characters .)。研究日本

         经济停滞是否造成社会裂痕,即对社会是否产生不良影响,D项是本题繁荣正确答案。

 

28. 【答案】  A

     【考点】  细节判断,针对第3段名题

     【解析】  Nather 发现最令人担忧的裂痕是学校暴力和逃学。对学校暴力和逃学现象,日本

       孩子的父辈只是疲惫地耸耸肩,他们的担心长期存在,不似乎还不是十分严重。但 Nather 

       调查研究发展,日本学校发生暴力和逃学的数量“do mark the situation look grave”,接着在

       第四段列举了日本儿童暴力事件增加的数据,由此可断定A项是正确答案。

 

29. 【答案】  A

      【考点】  例证观点,针对第5段命题。

      【解析】  Nzther 认为,日本学校暴力和逃学现象反映了一种广泛的梦想破灭和疏远感、不

        稳定感和愤怒感传到了孩子身上(a widespread feeling of disillusionment, alienation, 

        uncertainty or anger, which has spread to children too)。所以,实际上日本学校暴力和逃学

        现象反映的是日本人对社会的负面情感。A项是本题的正确答案。

 

30. 【答案】  D

      【考点】  归纳结论归纳,针对全文命题

      【解析】  全文主要是谈论日本经济停滞对社会造成的问题,但作者在最后一段指出,日本

        的认同危机也有许多积极的方面,如年青企业家的崛起;作家和地方政客界定并鼓励新的国

        民自豪感。作者在第一段开始就说,日本正在经历一个复杂的国民认同危机,但并不是坏事。

        可见,作者认为日本国民认同危机是有利有弊,D项是正确答案。


                                    【阅读理解】 一位美国研究日本问题专家眼中的日本社会 - 佳中 - 佳中Blog

 

  评论这张
 
阅读(963)| 评论(0)
推荐 转载

历史上的今天

评论

<#--最新日志,群博日志--> <#--推荐日志--> <#--引用记录--> <#--博主推荐--> <#--随机阅读--> <#--首页推荐--> <#--历史上的今天--> <#--被推荐日志--> <#--上一篇,下一篇--> <#-- 热度 --> <#-- 网易新闻广告 --> <#--右边模块结构--> <#--评论模块结构--> <#--引用模块结构--> <#--博主发起的投票-->
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

页脚

网易公司版权所有 ©1997-2017