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【阅读理解】动物有意识吗?  

2012-02-28 11:35:28|  分类: 阅读理解 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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【阅读理解】动物有意识吗? - 佳中 - 佳中Blog
 
【阅读理解】                    动物有意识吗?

                                                                               佳中命题


 

       The thinking among behavioral researchers, cognitive scientists and philosophers has been

that the actions of animals are unconscious.  Behavior, in this view, stems almost exclusively from

instinct, a sort of genetically programmed autopilot that provides an animal with rules for daily 

living. If animals behave in ways that seem pretty clever, they do so without thinking about it. 

Animals may know things but they don’t know that they know.

      Or do they? Scientists distrust fuzzy notions like “mind” and “consciousness”. It is this bias

against phenomena that are difficult to observe and quantify, argues Donald Griffin in his new 

book. “Animal Minds”, that allows science to dismiss the question of animal consciousness.

       In his new book, Griffin cites the recent research reports that demonstrate a startling depth 

of intelligence among animals. Although he concedes that no one can yet prove the existence of 

animal consciousness, the data that he offers make a compelling case for at least considering it. 

Pointing to examples of animals exhibiting versatile, adaptive behavior in response to novel 

challenges, Griffin says, “the limited evidence that we have suggests that animals think about 

things in relationships. So it is hard to avoid the possibility that they think about themselves.”

      Griffin analyzes the definition of consciousness in two ways. First it is awareness — an ability 

to recognize and make judgments about one’s surroundings. Animals pass this test all the time. 

The second, higher consciousness is self-awareness, or recognizing oneself as having an identity, 

with the capacity to contemplate that identity. It is difficult to imagine a dog thinking in terms like “I, 

Rover,” but Griffin does not argue that animals have a consciousness as complex and varied as a 

human’s. Instead, he asks whether there might be a middle ground where animals are aware of 

themselves as individuals. In other words, a pigeon knows it and finds eating bread crumbs 

desirable, but it can not compose poetry about the experience.

      Another element of consciousness is intention. Griffin suggests animals can anticipate future

events, make a decision and act on it. Sea otters use rocks as tools to crack open the shells.

Green-backed herons drop twigs or other bits of material into ponds, using it as bait to attract

feeding minnows. In winter when their ponds freeze over, beavers break holes in their dams to

create airspace beneath the ice. All examples show that some animals are capable of recognizing

relationships and inferring future consequences from present events.   

                                                                                                                (410 words)

 

1. According to this passage, many traditional scientists believe that animals __________.

    [A] know things that they do not know

    [B] rely on consciousness for their daily life

    [C] behave cleverly without meaning to do so

    [D] act automatically on programmed thoughts

2. The question of animal consciousness has so far been put out of scientists’ mind because

    __________.

    [A] the concept is vague and it is difficult to measure

    [B] the notion is confused and it is hard to characterize

    [C] scientists have bias against Griffin’s new book “Animal Minds”

    [D] behavioral scientists have fuzzy notions about “mind” and “consciousness”

3. From the fourth paragraph we learn that animals __________.

    [A] have some awareness of themselves

    [B] know what is desirable to them

    [C] lack capacity to recognize themselves

    [D] show a startling depth of intelligence

4. According to Griffin, some animals have evolved to __________.

    [A] think about things around and themselves

    [B] reason things out by abstract thinking

    [C] engage in some forms of mental labour

    [D] perform purposeful actions in advance

5. It is evident that Griffin’s new book is designed to __________.

    [A] compare the difference in consciousness among animals

    [B] explore the relation between animal intelligence and consciousness

    [C] shed fresh light on the concept of animal consciousness

    [D] clarify the fuzzy notions of animal minds and consciousness

 

 

答案解析

 1.【答案】 C

    【解析】 这是一道细节题,针对第一段命题。动物是否具有意识?长期以来许多科学家(如

     行为科学家、认知科学家和哲学家)都一直认为动物的行为是无意识的,是凭靠直觉;动物

     有出色的行为表现,但并不是思维的结果(If animjal behave in ways that seem pretty clever, 

      they do so without thinking about it);动物也许认识事物,但它们并不意识到这一点。[C]

      的意思是动物的行为可表现出色,但并不是有意识要这样做,符合上述观点,因此[C]是本

      题的正确答案。

 

 2.【答案】 A

    【解析】 这是一道细节题,针对第二段命题。作者在第二段阐述了为什么动物意识长期得不

     到研究的原因,这是因为许多科学家不相信动物有“思维”和“意识”之类的模糊概念。作者引用

     哈佛大学行为科学家格里芬在他的新作《动物思维》中的观点分析说,“这是对这种难以观察

     和量化的复杂现象存在的偏见,正是这种偏见使科学家们放弃了对动物意识的研究(It is this 

     bias against phenomena that are difficult to observe and quantify ……… that allows science to 

     dismiss the question of animal consciousness.)”。[A]项的意思是动物意识的概念是模糊的,

     是难以测定的,与这种的解释相符,因此[A]项是本题的正确答案。注意:选项中的measure

     指代了文中的 observe and quantify。

            [D]项干扰项很强,文中说科学家们不相信动物有“思维”和“意识”之类的模糊概念,不

     科学家们在动物思维和意识问题上有模糊观念。

 

 3.【答案】 C

    【解析】 这是一道题,针对第四段命题。格里芬从两个层面分析动物的意思,一是

      “awareness”,即能认识和判断周围事物,这种能力动物都有。二是“self-awareness”,即知道

      自己是什么并以此来思考的能力,这种自我意识的能力动物没有,比如一条狗是不可能以“我

是Rover” 来思考事

      物的。可见动物是没有自我意识的,[C]是本题的正确答案。

 

 4.【答案】 D

    【解析】 这是一道判断题,针对格里芬关于动物意识的看法(涉及第三、四、五段)命题。

      题干问:根据格里芬的观点,动物(意识)进化到 ……?[A]项的意思是能思考事物和自己。

      错,动物没有自我意识。[B]项的意思是能用抽象事物考虑事物;[C]项的意思是能从事复杂

      的脑力劳动。这两项都错,格里芬认为动物还没有像人一样的复杂意识(Griffin does not 

      argue that animals have a consciousness as complex and varied as a human’s)。

             [D]项的意思是能从事事先有目的行为。对,第五段讲动物的行为是有意图的,段中用

      三个例子说明动物行事是用意图的,即有一定的目的。

 

 5.【答案】 C

    【解析】 这是一道推断题。从文中谈论格里芬对动物意识的看法,不难推断格里芬的新书是

     论述对动物想意识的看法,他认为动物有一定的意思,但没有像人那样的复杂思维能力,没

     有自我意识。因此,[C]项是本题的正确答案。此书的主要目的并不是想澄清人们对动物意

     识和思维有模糊观念。


     

                            【阅读理解】动物有意识吗? - 佳中 - 佳中Blog【阅读理解】动物有意识吗? - 佳中 - 佳中Blog
  

 

 

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