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【阅读理解】对移民员工的语言歧视  

2012-02-03 11:10:58|  分类: 阅读理解 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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【阅读理解】对移民员工的语言歧视 - 佳中 - 嘉华相恋

   【阅读理解】          对移民员工的语言歧视

                                                              

  

 

 

 

     With the usual flood of immigrants from non-English-speaking countries, there comes a multi-cultural work

force. Along with this diversity comes resentment felt by natives in the workplace. Feelings of antagonism

surface when accents are strong or foreign languages are used that some workers cannot understand.

There is now a clash of forces in the workplace; the battle is centered around English-only polices. A growing

number of workers are alleging discrimination on the basis of language.

     The federal law prohibits employment discrimination comes under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

(Title VII), which prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin.

National-origin discrimination makes it illegal to discriminate against an individual because of birthplace,

ancestry, culture or linguistic characteristics common to a specific ethnic group. A rule requiring that

employees speak only English on the job violates the law unless an employer shows that the requirement is

necessary for conducting the business. If the employer believes such a rule is necessary employees must

be informed of when English is required and the consequences for violating the rule.

     Donna Fernandez, language rights attorney at the Employment Law Center of San Francisco, finds that

language discrimination is very prevalent in the workplace. Fernandez states that the biases may include

“English-only polices when the employee’s primary language is other than English” or “some people

may be treated differently because they speak with an accent.”

     It is illegal for an employer to discriminate against an employee because of language. However, the

increase in language discrimination suits indicates that employers are treating employees speaking with an

accent or in a foreign language differently. Many companies don’t know they are breaking the law with the

English-only policies. Employees can challenge a speak-English-only policy if: the rule is applied to

employees who speak no English; they have difficulty speaking English; or the policy creates a work

environment that is hostile toward national origin minority employees. An employer must show some

“business necessity” for the policy. Even if there is a business need, the policy is still illegal if there are

less discriminatory alternatives to the policy.

      Immigrant workers may feel they are viewed as less intelligent if they cannot speak English perfectly. They

may miss out on promotions to positions of authority if they can’t express themselves or communicate clearly.

Often, there are subtle prejudges against some accents more than others. Speaking with a French or British

accent is less frowned upon than a Spanish or Vietnamese accent. By not promoting employees because of

an accent or language bias, a ghetto effect is created in the work force, keeping certain accents and immigrants

in low-level positions.

                                                                                                                             (445 words)

 

1. The passage is primarily concerned with

    [A] the multi-cultural work fore.

    [B] language discrimination in the workplace.

    [C] the clash between native and immigrant workers.

    [D] the adoption of English-only policy at work.

2. From the first paragraph we learn that

    [A] immigrant workers feel resentful towards the workers with native English skills.

    [B] clash between different groups is inevitable in a culturally diverse workforce.

    [C] English-only polices have produced malfunction of communication in the work force.

    [D] sentimental conflicts arise in the workplace because of an accent or language bias.

3. Under Title VII, it is illegal for an employer to

    [A] enforce English-only policies in the workplace.

    [B] require his employees to speak no other languages than English.

    [C] deny jobs to immigrant workers who can speak only English.

    [D] deprive a worker of employment because of his language and accent.

4. “English-only policies” are considered legal only when the employers can

    [A] show any business necessity for them.

    [B] prove the they are absolutely necessary for business.

    [C] create a work environment not hostile toward the employees.

    [D] volunteer to bear the consequence of violating the rule.

5. “The ghetto effect” in the last sentence of the last paragraph refers to

    [A] obvious discrepancy in the positions of native workers and immigrant workers.

    [B] subtle prejudges among workers with different languages or accents.

    [C] great clash between English-speaking and non-English-speaking employees.

    [D] intelligent difference between immigrant workers and native workers.

 

 

答案解析

1.   【答案】   B

      【解析】   这是一道主旨题,针对全文中心思想命题。美国的一些企业将英语作为工作场所的唯一语言,

       使越来越多的移民感到他们在语言上他们受到歧视。文章的主题句是:A growing number of workers are

       alleging discrimination on the basis of language. 全文作者围绕将英语作为的唯一语言的合法性展开论述。

       从总的论述中可以看出,作者认为将英语作为工作场所的唯一语言是违反美国联邦法律的。A项“工作场所

       的语言歧视”反映了文章的主题,因此是本题的正确答案。

            C项的意思是“本地员工与移民员工的冲突”,D项的干扰性很强,“工作中采用唯一英语的政策”虽然

       是文章谈论的主要内容,但作为主题含义上太笼统,因为全文可能是一篇讨论在工作场所是否必要采用唯一

       英语政策性文章,与本文的主题language discrimination(歧视)不符。

 

2. 【答案】   D 

    【解析】   这是一道细节题,针对第一段中的重要信息命题。作者在第一段中说,随着非英语国家移民纷至沓

     来,多文化的劳动大军已在美国形成。由于这些移民不会讲英语,他们的语言和口音本国工人听不懂,于是

     引起本地工人的敌意,产生情感冲突(Feeling of antagonism surface when accents are strong or foreign

     languages are used that some workers cannot understand. There is now a clash of forces in the

     workplace)。 D项的意思是“由于口音和语言歧视,工作场所出现情感冲突”,意义上与之吻合。

           A项的意思是“移民工人对讲本地语言的工人产生怨恨”。 意义上反了,文中说本地工人对移民工人产生

      怨恨。B项的意思是“在多文化(民族)的工作场所,民族之间的冲突在所难免”,从广义上来说,这句话本

      身没有错,但没有反映文中论说的主旨。C项的意思是“唯一英语政策使员工之间的交流不畅”,与文章所述

      不符。

 

3.   【答案】   D

       【解析】   这是一道细节题,针对第二段中心思想命题。文章第一段提出唯一英语政策引发语言歧视的主题,

        接着作者在第二段指出在法律上将英语作为工作场所的唯一语言是违法的。美国《民权法案》第七章规定禁

        止因种族、肤色、宗教、性别和国籍上的歧视。对国籍歧视也明确规定因出生、血统、文化或一个特定的族

        群体共有的语言特征(linguistic characteristics common to a specific ethnic group)歧视个人是非法的。D

        项的意思是“因为语言和口音重而剥夺工人就业”,即拒绝给于那些有某一特定的族群体共有的语言特征的

        人就业的机会。根据《民权法案》第七章这显然是非法的,由此可以断定D项是本题的正确答案。

 

4.   【答案】   B    

      【解析】   这是一道归纳题,针对唯一英语政策是否合法命题。文章的第二段末和第四段末谈论到唯一英语政

        策。根据美国《民权法案》第七章,因语言而歧视员工是非法的,因此在工作场所采用唯一英语的政策的违

        法的,但《民权法案》也规定如果企业有必须用英语作为运行业务的要求,那么不能视为违法,不过雇主必

        须证明采用唯一英语政策的必要性(An employer must show some “business necessity” for the policy)。

        即使确有业务的需要,如果还有歧视性更小的措施,唯一英语的政策仍是违法的(Even if there is a business

        need, the policy is still illegal if there are less discriminatory alternatives to the policy)。从这两句话可以推

        断,只有雇主能证明是绝对必要时,唯一英语政策才是合法的,B项是本题的正确答案。

 

5.   【答案】   A

      【解析】   这是一道词语题,针对最后一段命题。ghetto effect出现在文章的最后一段,要理解其含义,必须从

       上下文语境来推断。最后一段中说:移民雇员由于不能清楚地表达自己或与他人进行语言交流,他们就会丧失

       晋升到有权力的职位的机会(They may miss out on promotions to positions of authority if they can’t

       express themselves or communicate clearly),使他们只能停留在低地位的职务上(keeping certain accents

       and immigrants in low-level positions)。可见,语言歧视使企业在管理层上出现阶层,英语讲得好的人可得到

       高的职位,英语讲得不好的人只能留在低职位。A项的意思是“本地员工与移民员工在职位上有明显的差别”,

       反映了ghetto effect(阶层分化作用)的含义,由此A项是本题的正确答案。

                                                          

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